Peluang China Aplikasi Model Taiwan Relations Act (TRA) dalam Konflik Israel-Palestin sebagai Palestine Relations Act (PRA) dan Meluaskan Kuasa Ke Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) dan Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)

  • Md. Shukri Shuib School of International Studies (SOIS), College of Law, Government, and International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM)
Keywords: konflik Israel-Palestin, hubungan China-Taiwan, Palestine Relations Act (PRA)

Abstract

Penyelesaian Konflik Israel-Palestin telah menjadi agenda global yang tidak hanya membabitkan negara tertentu tetapi juga melibatkan organisasi antarabangsa seperti Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu (PBB), Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) dan Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) yang gagal diselesaikan semenjak tahun 1948. Serangan ke atas negara dan korban nyawa rakyat Palestin telah menjadi perkara biasa dalam senario keselamatan antarabangsa. China yang merupakan antara kuasa besar dan ahli Majlis Keselamatan PBB telah memberi perhatian terhadap nasib Palestin telah menarik perhatian sebagai negara yang mampu membawa penyelesaian konflik. Dalam masa yang sama China turut memiliki peluang melalui konsep hubungan Amerika Syarikat-Taiwan dalam Taiwan Relations Act (TRA) sebagai model penyelesaian yang akan memberikan manfaat yang besar kepada Palestin dan China sendiri dalam aspek politik, ekonomi dan penyelesaian masalah dalaman China. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk menjelaskan konsep TRA boleh dijadikan sebagai asas kepada pembentukan Palestine Relations Act (PRA) antara China dan Palestin yang akan membuka peluang kepada perluasan pengaruh kepada 57 buah negara OIC dan 120 buah negara NAM yang secara langsung memberikan sokongan kepada China bagi menggantikan Soviet Union (Rusia) untuk mengimbangi kuasa besar Amerika Syarikat (AS) dalam sistem antarabangsa. China yang selama ini terpaksa tunduk dan diawasi oleh AS dalam tuntutannya ke atas Taiwan kini dapat menggunakan model TRA ini bagi membolehkan China memantau dan mengawasi perluasan kuasa AS di Timur Tengah dan antarabangsa di samping memiliki peluang besar untuk muncul sebagai kuasa pengimbang dalam sistem antarabangsa. Kajian ini turut menyatakan keberkesanan cegahrintang (deterrence) TRA dan model ini dapat digunakan oleh China untuk diaplikasikan dengan Palestin melalui PRA yang dapat membawa kepada keamanan dan kemakmuran sejagat.

Statistics
Abstract views: 209 , PDF downloads: 95

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Asiri Mohammed Abdulrahman, Liu Cheng & Liu Xiangdong (2019). Middle-East and OBOR Trade Integration: Perspectives Analysis from Transportation Cost. Proceedings of the 2019 International Conference on E-Business and E-commerce Engineering. December 2019. Hlm 47-51. https://doi.org/10.1145/3385061.3385066

Azmi Hassan (2003). Hasrat Canberra gugat Asia. Berita Harian. 13 Disember.

Azmi Hassan (2003). Singapura contohi Amerika mantap pertahanan `Homeland'. Berita Harian. 17 Mei.

Barbara Lippert dan Volker Perthes (2020) Strategic Rivalry Between United States And China Causes, Trajectories, And Implications For Europe. SWP Research Paper, 1-53. Doi: 10.18449/2020RP04

Berita Harian (1994)Amerika Monopoli Dagangan Senjata Konvensional. Berita Harian. 15 September 1994.

Berita Harian (1996). Asean pasaran baru senjata dunia. Berita Harian. 17 Februari 1996.

Berita Harian . (1996). Asia Hadapi Konflik Politik. Berita Harian. 24 Februari 1996.

Blazevic, J. J. (2010). The Taiwan Dilemma: China, Japan, and the Strait Dynamic. Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, 39(4),143-173

Cal Clark (2010). The Taiwan Relations Act and the U.S. Balancing Role in Cross-Strait Relations. American Journal of Chinese Studies, 17(1), 3-18

Chairman Arafat Greets National Day (1970). Peking Review, 13(42). 16 October 1970.

Charles D. Pasquale (2007). Pivotal Deterrence and United States Security Policy in the Taiwan Strait. Dissertations. Old Dominion University. Spring.

Chen Qimao (1987). The Taiwan Issue and Sino-U.S. Relations: A PRC View. Asian Survey, 27(11), 1161-1175. https://doi.org/10.2307/2644720

China didakwa memandulkan etnik Uighur secara paksa. Berita Harian. 30 Jun 2020. https://www.bharian.com.my/dunia/asia/2020/06/705542/china-didakwa-memandulkan-etnik-uighur-secara-paksa

Christina Majaski (2020). Newly Industrialized Country – NIC. 25 December 2020

Dan Peled (2001). Defense R&D and Economic Growth in Israel:A Research Agenda. Department of Economics, University of Haifa. March https://www.cairn.info/revue-journal-of-innovation-economics-2013-2-page-37.htm

David Shambaugh (1966). Taiwan's Security: Maintaining Deterrence Amid Political Accountability. The China Quarterly, 148, 1284 – 1318. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305741000050633

Delegation of Palestine Liberation Movement (Fateh) Arrives in Peking. Peking Review, 13(13), 27, 4-5.

Donald S. Zagoria (1991). The End of the Cold War in Asia: Its Impact on China.The China Challenge: American Policies in East Asia. Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science, 38(2), 1-11

Douglas McCready (2003). Crisis Deterrence In The Taiwan Strait. November. http://ww2.usc.cuhk.edu.hk/PaperCollection/webmanager/wkfiles/2929_1_paper.pdf

Glenn R. Butterton (1997). Signals, Threats, and Deterrence: Alive and Well in the Taiwan Strait. Catholic University Law Review. Vol 47 (1).Fall .https://www.futuredirections.org.au/publication/to-deter-china-increase-taiwans-international-relations/https://www.investopedia.com/terms/n/newly-industrialized-country.asp

Israel Miliki 400 Bom Nuklear. Berita Harian. 6 Julai 2002.

Isu Uighur: Hampir 40 negara desak China. Harian Metro. 7 Oktober 2020 https://www.hmetro.com.my/global/2020/10/628193/isu-uighur-hampir-40-negara-desak-china

Kapal Perang AS Lalui Selat Melaka. Berita Harian. 21 Mac 1996.

Konflik Israel-Palestin ancam Asia Barat. Harian Metro. 19 Mei 2021 https://www.kosmo.com.my/2021/05/19/konflik-israel-palestin-ancam-asia-barat/

Konflik Palestin-Israel: China kemuka empat cadangan. Sinar Harian. 17 Mei 2021. https://www.sinarharian.com.my/article/138938/GLOBAL/Konflik-Palestin-Israel-China-kemuka-empat-cadangan

Kuasa Ekonomi Matlamat Barat. Berita Harian. 4 Oktober 1995.

Lillian Craig Harris (2021). China's Relations with the PLO. 4 Feb 2021.hlm 123-154. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.2307/2536531?journalCode=rpal20

Lindsay Hughes (2021). To Deter China, Increase Taiwan’s International Relations. Indo-Pacific Research Programme.3 March 2021

Nazura Ngah (2017). China Sokong Palestin Yang Berdaulat, Merdeka. Berita Harian. 14 Disember. https://www.bharian.com.my/berita/nasional/2017/12/363377/china-sokong-palestin-yang-berdaulat-merdeka

Niv Horesh (2019). Introduction: Cina's One Belt, One Road Vision-Implications for the Middle East. Dalam Anoushiravan Ehteshami dan Niv Horesh (Edt) China's Presence in the Middle East The Implications of the One Belt, One Road Initiative. New York: Routledge. Hlm 1-7

Pentagon mahu jual senjata: China. Berita Harian. 2 Ogos 2003.

Ramli Abdul Samad (1994). Kesan perlumbaan senjata. Berita Harian. 30 Jun 1994.

Rebecca Harding (2019). China’s Belt And Road Initiative And Its Impact On The Middle East And North Africa. 20 September 2019. https://internationalbanker.com/finance/chinas-belt-and-road-initiative-and-its-impact-on-the-middle-east-and-north-africa/

Richard A. Bitzinger (2018). Military-Technological Innovation in Small States: The Cases of Israel and Singapore. Research Brief. Study Of Innovation And Technology In China. 4 May 2018.hlm 1-4 https://escholarship.org/uc/item/7vp2x155

Richard C. Bush (2017). A One-China Policy Primer. East Asia Policy Paper. 10 March. Hlm 1-30. https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/one-china-policy-primer-web-final.pdf

Sara Sudetic (2014). Pre-Emption and Israeli Decision-Making in 1967 and 1973. 16 March. https://www.e-ir.info/2014/03/16/pre-emption-and-israeli-decision-making-in-1967-and-1973/

Shi Jiangtao (2021). China pledges US$1 million in aid, Covid-19 vaccines to Palestinians. 21 May. https://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy/article/3134375/china-pledges-us1-million-aid-covid-19-vaccines-palestinians

Susan V. Lawrence and Wayne M. Morrison (2017). Taiwan: Issues for Congress. CRS Report. Congressional Research Service. 30 October. Hlm 1-83 https://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R44996.pdf

Thomas J. Christensen (1999).China, the U.S.-Japan Alliance, and the Security Dilemma in East Asia. International Security, 23(4), 49-80

Yang Chen (2017). China’s Position on the Palestine-Israel Issue: A Historical Perspective. Middle Eastern Studies. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/887461

Zeev Rosenhek, Daniel Maman dan Eyal Ben-Ari (2003). The Study of War and the Military in Israel: An Empirical Investigation and a Reflective Critique. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 35 (3), 461-484
Published
2021-06-10
How to Cite
Shuib, M. S. (2021) “Peluang China Aplikasi Model Taiwan Relations Act (TRA) dalam Konflik Israel-Palestin sebagai Palestine Relations Act (PRA) dan Meluaskan Kuasa Ke Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) dan Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)”, Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 6(6), pp. 37 - 52. doi: https://doi.org/10.47405/mjssh.v6i6.840.
Section
Articles