Pengurusan Risiko Menurut Perspektif Syarak: Satu Kajian Tinjauan Di Institusi Wakaf Majlis Agama Islam Negeri (MAIN) Terpilih

  • Wan Mohd Al Faizee Ab Wan Ab Rahaman Institut Islam Hadhari, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  • Salmy Edawati Yaacob Institut Islam Hadhari, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  • Mohamad Sabri Haron Institut Islam Hadhari, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  • Suhada Ishak Berjaya University College
Keywords: pengurusan risiko bersepadu, kewangan sosial Islam, kewangan Islam, non profit organization, endowmen

Abstract

Pengurusan risiko merupakan antara komponen tadbir urus yang baik dan berperanan memastikan objektif dan matlamat institusi tercapai. Risiko dan pengurusan risiko telah menjadi perhatian dalam institusi bermatlamatkan keuntungan seperti syarikat kewangan kerana faktor untung dan rugi. Namun, situasi ini berbeza dengan institusi tidak bermatlamatkan keuntungan yang masih kurang menekankan perihal pengurusan risiko serta dibahaskan dalam konteks semasa. Tambahan pula, syarak telah menekankan perihal risiko dan pengurusan risiko lebih-lebih lagi melibatkan institusi yang berlatar belakangkan Islam seperti wakaf. Justeru itu, kajian ini akan menganalisis kedudukan risiko dan pengurusan risiko dari sudut pandang syarak, seterusnya meneliti keterdedahan risiko serta keperluan pengurusan risiko dalam institusi wakaf. Reka bentuk kajian ini adalah kualitatif dengan menggunakan analisis kandungan. Dapatan kajian mengenal pasti bahawa risiko dan pengurusan risiko telah ditekankan oleh syarak melalui perspektif al-Quran, al-Sunnah, fiqh dan praktikal semasa. Kajian turut mendapati pengurusan wakaf di Malaysia belum terdapat bahagian pengurusan risiko yang khusus dalam organisasi mereka walaupun perbincangan pengurusan risiko dalam institusi tidak bermatlamatkan keuntungan semakin mendapat perhatian. Kajian ini turut mencadangkan pendekatan pengurusan risiko yang lebih menyeluruh dan kontemporari untuk diamalkan dalam kerangka pengurusan risiko institusi wakaf semasa.

Statistics
Abstract views: 99 , PDF downloads: 65

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Akkizidis, I., & Khandelwal, S. K. (2008). Financial Risk Management for Islamic Banking and Finance. In Financial Risk Management for Islamic Banking and Finance.

Al-Saati, A. R. (2003). The Permissible Gharar (Risk) in Classical Islamic Jurisprudence. Islamic Economic Studies, 16(2), 3–19.

Al-Suwailem, S. (2001). Venture Capital : A potential Model Of Musharakah. Journal of King Abdulaziz University-Islamic Economics, 13(1), 61–62.

Al-Suwailem, S. (2013). Towards an Objective Measure of Gharar in Exchange. Islamic Economics Studies, 7(1 & 2), 64–66.

Al-Zarqa’, M. A. (1980). Nizam al-Ta’min: Mawqi‘uh fi al-Maidan al-Iqtisadi bi Wajh ‘Am wa Maqifu al-Shariah al-Islamiyyah minah.

Althaus, C. E. (2005). A disciplinary perspective on the epistemological status of risk. Risk Analysis, 25, 567-588.

Anheier, H. K. (2005). Nonprofit Organizations: Theory, Management, Policy. In Social Policy.

Aygun, O. O. (2007). The included middle: Logos in Aristotle’s philosophy. Pennsylvania State University, State College.

Ayub, M. (2007). Understanding Islamic Finance (P. A. W. Pribadi (ed.). Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Ayvaz, E., & Pehlivanli, D. (2010). Enterprise Risk Management Based Internal Auditing. 5(1), 1–20.

Beasley, M.S., Clune, R. & Hermanson, D. (2005). Enterprise risk management: an empirical analysis of factors associated with the extent of implementation. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 24(6), 521–531.

Bhatti, I., & Misman, F. N. (2012). Risks Exposure in Islamic Banks: A Case Study of Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB). SSRN Electronic Journal.

Boas, K. (2012). Building capacity in NGO risk management. Retrieved from http://www. thesustainablengo.org/.

Bougatef, K. (2015). The impact of corruption on the soundness of Islamic banks. Borsa Istanbul Review, 15(4), 283-295.

Bowman, W., Keating, E., Hager, M. (2007). Investment Income. In: Financing nonprofits, putting theory into practice. In Lanham: National Center on Nonprofit Enterprise and Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, INC edited by D. R. Young.

Carr, V., & Tah, J. H. M. (2001). A fuzzy approach to construction project risk assessment and analysis: Construction project risk management system. Advances in Engineering Software, 32(10–11), 847–857.

CAS. (2003). Overview on Enterprise Risk Management: Casualty Actuarial Society - Enterprise Risk Management Committee.

Chapman, R. (2007). Successful management of IT risk.

Chen, T.J. (2012). The impact of enterprise risk management on corporate governance and firm value. Working Paper of American Accounting Association Annual Meeting and Conference on Teaching and Learning in Accounting, 4-8 August, Washington, DC.

Clary, D. (1997). Six steps to good-reputation insurance. Nonprofit World, 15(1), 45–47.

Collier, P.M. & Woods, M. (2011). A Comparison of the Local Authority Adoption of Risk Management in England and Australia. Australian Accounting Review, 21(2), 111–123.

Culp, C. L. (2002). The Revolution in Corporate Risk Management: A Decade in Innovations in Process and Products. Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, 14(4), 9–26.

Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). (2004). Enterprise Risk Management – Integrated Framework. New York.

Dickinson, G. (2001). Enterprise risk management: Its origins and conceptual foundation. The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance, 2(3), 360–366.

Duncan, N. (2008). Risk management: How to protect your assets? Nonprofit World, 26(1), 25-28.

Dusuki, A. W., & Smolo, E. (2009). Islamic hedging: Rationale, necessity and challenges. Proceeding International Seminar on Muamalat, Islamic Economics and Finance, 2009 (SMEKI’ 09), 533-552.

El Tiby, A. M. (2011). Islamic Banking: How to Manage Risk and Improve Profitability. In Islamic Banking: How to Manage Risk and Improve Profitability.

Elgari, M. A. (2003). Credit Risk in Islamic Banking and Finance. Islamic Economic Studies, 10(2).

Elsefy, H. (2007). Islamic Finance: a Comparative Jurisprudential Study. Penerbit Universiti Malay.

F. Ostrower, M. M. S. (2007). Governance: Research trends, gaps, and future prospects.

Fisher, D. (1983). The Role of Philanthropic Foundations in the Reproduction and Production of Hegemony: Rockefeller Foundations and the Social Sciences. Sociology.

Fraser, J. R. S., & Simkins, B. J. (2016). The challenges of and solutions for implementing enterprise risk management. Business Horizons, 59, 689-698.

Gronbjerg, K. A. (1991). How nonprofit human service organizations manage their funding sources: Key findings and policy implications. Nonprofit Management and Leadership.

Habegger, B. (2008). Risk Management in Public Policy. International Studies Association 49th Annual Convention.

Hayne, C., & Free, C. (2014). Hybridized professional groups and institutional work: COSO and the rise of enterprise risk management. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 39(5), 309–330.

Head, G.L., Herman, M.L. (2002). Enlightened risk taking, A guide to strategic risk manage- ment for nonprofit. Washington: Nonprofit Risk Management Center.

Hopkin, P. (2002). Holistic Risk Management in Practice.

Hubbard, D. (2009). The Failure Of Risk Management: Why It’s Broken And How To Fix It. John Wiley& Sons.

Ibn Taimiyyah, A., A., H., A., S. (1987). Al-Fatawa al-Misriyah. Dar al- Jil.

Ibn Taimiyyah, A., A., H., A., S. (1996). Tafsir Ayat Asykalata (M. Al-Rusyd (ed.).

Ibn al-Manzur, A. F. J. D. M. I. M. (2002). Lisan al-Arab. Kaherah. Dr al-Ma’arif.

Liebenberg, A.P & Hoyt, R. (2003). The Determinants of Enterprise Risk Management: Evidence from the Appointment of Chief Risk Officer. Risk Management and Insurance Review, 6(1), 37-52.

Ismail, A., & Ahmad, M. A. J. (2010). Krisis Kredit Menurut Perspektif Pengurusan Risiko Islam : Bagaimana Syariah Memberikan Pengajaran Bernilai Untuk Kapitalis. Jurnal Muamalat, 3, 47–75.

Iwankiewicz-Rak, B. (2006). Siła wizerunku organizacji pozarządowej (The Power of the Nongovernmental Organization’s Image). Trzeci Sektor, 5, 30–36.

Jackson, M. O. (2010). Social and Economic Networks. In Social and Economic Networks.

Jorion, P. & S. J. K. (1996). Financial Risk Management Domestic and International Dimensions. Blackwell Publishers. Cambridge: Massachusetts.

Kathir, I. (1999). Tafsir al-Quran al-’Azim. Dar Taiyibah.

Kearns, K. (2007). Income portfolios. In: Financing nonprofits, putting theory into practice. In D. R. Young (Ed.), Lanham: National Center on Nonprofit Enterprise and Rowman and Little- field Publishers, INC.

Khan, T., & Ahmed, H. (2001). Risk management an analysis of issues in Islamic financial industry. 6(5), 193.

Knechel, W. R. (2002). The role of the independent accountant in effective risk management. Journal of Economics and Management, 47, 65–86.

Liu, J., Li, B., Lin, B., & Nguyen, V. (2007). Key issues and challenges of risk management and insurance in China’s construction industry: An empirical study. Industrial Management and Data Systems.

Matan, R., & Hartnett, B. (2011). How Nonprofit Organizations Manage Risk. Sobel & Co.

Mikes, A., & Kaplan, R. S. (2015). When one size doesn’t fit all: Evolving directions in the research and practice of enterprise risk management. Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, 27, 37–40.

Mitchell, V. (1995). Assessing the perceived risks associated with appointing planning consultants. Journal of Marketing Management, 11(1-3), 165-186.

Mohd Razif, N. F., & Mohamad, S. (2011). Risiko-risiko dalam kewangan semasa: penilaian daripada perspektif Islam. International Conference on Management (ICM 2011), Icm, 373-387.

Nurhafiza, A. K. M. (2015). Islamic banking and risk management: Issues and challenges. Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, Oct.-Dec., 64-71.

Othman, R., & Ameer, R. (2014). Institutionalization of risk management framework in Islamic NGOs for suppressing terrorism financing. Journal of Money Laundering Control, 17(1), 96-109.

Rahman, R. A., Alsmady, A., Ibrahim, Z., & Muhammad, A. D. (2014). Risk Management Practices In Islamic. The Journal of Applied Business Research, 30(5), 1295-1304.

Ramli, S. (2000). Pasaran Niaga Hadapan: Melindung Nilai dan Spekulasi. Utusan Publications & Distributors Sdn.Bhd.

Redzuan, H., R. Y. & M. A. H. (2006). Prinsip Pengurusan Risiko dan Insurans. Prentice Hall.

Rejda, G. E. (n.d.). Principles Of Risk Management And Insurance.

Rosly, S. A. (2005). Critical issues on Islamic banking and financial markets: Islamic economics, banking and finance, investments, Takaful and financial planning. Dinamas Publishing.

Said, F. F., & Iglesias, E. M. (2017). Basel II and the financing of R&D investments in Malaysia. International Journal of Economics and Management, 11(1), 127-152.

Shimpi, P. A., & Lowe, S. P. (2006). Risk Management: ERM for Insurers. Risk Management, July 2006(8), 34-38.

Sollis, P. (1995). Partners in development? The state, nongovernmental organizations and the UN in Central America. Third World Quarterly, 16(3), 525–542.

Sundarajan, V. (2005). Risk measurement and disclosure in Islamic Finance and the implications of profit sharing investment accounts. 6th International Conference at Islamic Economics, Banking and Finance, Organized by Islamic Research and Training Institute- Islamic Development Bank, Bank Indonesia, and University of Indonesia.

Mohd Noor, S. N., M., Ismail, A. G., Hakimi, M., & Shafiai, M. (2018). Shariah Risk : Its Origin , Definition , and Application in Islamic Finance.

Thompson, P. B. (1986). The philosophical foundations of risk. Southern Journal of Philosophy, 24, 273-286.

Trimpop, R. M. (1994). The Psychology of Risk Taking Behavior.

Trivunovic, M., Johnsøn, J., & Mathisen, H. (2011). Developing an NGO corruption risk management system: Considerations for donors.

Trussel, J.M., Patrick, P. (2009). An empirical analysis of financial distress in Pennsylvania hospitals. Journal of Health Care Finance, 36(1), 31–60.

Van Staveren, M. (2009). Risk Innovation and Change.

Vaughan, E. (1997). Risk Management.

Wan Ab Rahaman, W. M. A. F., Yaacob, S. E., M. S. H. (2020). Pengurusan Pembangunan Portfolio Aset Wakaf : Keterdedahan Risiko dan Pengurusannya. Jcil, 5, 26–36.

West, D.C., Sargeant, A. (2004). Taking risks with advertising: The case of the not-for-profit sector. Journal of Marketing Management, 20(9), 1027–1045.

Wilson-Grau, R. (2003). The risk approach to strategic management in development NGOs. Development in Practice, 13(5), 533–536.

Zaidan, A. K. (2008). Al-Wajiz: 100 Kaedah Fikih dalam Kehidupan Sehari-hari (P. M. M. Rida (ed.); p. 183). Penerbit Pustaka Al-Kautsar.

Zapadka, P. (2007). Ryzyko prawne w działalno- ści banków komercyjnych – wybrane zagadnie- nia (Legal risk in commercial banks - selected issues). Prawo Bankowe. 3(115), 30.
Published
2021-06-10
How to Cite
Wan Ab Rahaman, W. M. A. F., Yaacob, S. E., Haron, M. S. and Ishak, S. (2021) “Pengurusan Risiko Menurut Perspektif Syarak: Satu Kajian Tinjauan Di Institusi Wakaf Majlis Agama Islam Negeri (MAIN) Terpilih”, Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 6(6), pp. 100 - 113. doi: https://doi.org/10.47405/mjssh.v6i6.822.
Section
Articles