A Pilot Study of the Relationship Between Parenting Style and Academic Procrastination Among Final Year Students of Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
Academic procrastination is a behaviour which can be defined as putting off, delay, prolong, defer, stall, or postpone in performing tasks related to the academic. Academic procrastination is not a new phenomenon but it is a common behaviour especially among students as previous research has found that approximately 75% of students consider themselves as procrastinators. This issue is very much related to the “Student Syndrome” where student only starts to make themselves work in completing the task instantly right before the due date and leaving them with a very short period of time to complete it. There were many previous researchers that had investigated the factors that causing academic procrastination and one of the most common factors are parenting style. However, the pattern of the previous results was inconsistent. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate in deep on the relationship between the motivational aspects of parenting style to academic procrastination with focusing among the undergraduate students who are in their final year from Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia. The research design of this study is a quantitative research and for that reason, a set of questionnaire was distributed to 148 respondents. Result shows that 52.7% of the final year students perceived at high level of academic procrastination. Apart from that, the result also shows that there is no significant relationship between gender and parenting styles to academic procrastination. As a conclusion, academic procrastination is a common behaviour among final year students. However, parenting styles does not affecting academic procrastination due to the students’ age which can be categorised as early adulthood which at this age, parenting style factors does not give an impact on academic procrastination.
Alkharusi, H., Aldhafri, S., Kazem, A., Alzubiadi, A., & Al-Bahrani, M. (2011). Development and Validation of A Short Version of the Parental Authority Questionnaire. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 39, 1193-1208.
Al-Zoubi, S.M., & Younes, M.A.B. (2015). Low Academic Achievement: Causes and Results. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(11), 2262-2268.
Bakar, A.Z., & Khan, U.M. (2016). Relationships between Self-Efficacy and the Academic Procrastination Behaviour among University Students in Malaysia: A General Perspective. Journal of Education and Learning, 10(3), 265-274.
Balkis, M., & Duru, E. (2017). Gender Differences in the Relationship between Academic Procrastination, Satisfaction with Academic Procrastination, Satisfaction with Academic Life and Academic Performance, Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 15(1), 105-125.
Baumrind, D. (1991). The Influence of Parentign Style on Adolescent Competence and Substance Use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11(1), 56-95.
Buri, J. (1991). Parental authority questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57, 110–119.
Cobb-Clark, D.A., Salamanca, N. & Zhu, A. (2017). Parenting style as an investment in human development. IZA Discussion Paper 9689.
Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting Style as Context: An Intergrative Model. American Psychological Association, Inc., 113(3), 487-496.
Ferrari, J.R., Johnson, J.L., & McCown, W.G. (1995). Procrastination and Task Avoidance: Theory, Research, and Treatment. Spring Street, New York.
Hussain, I., & Sultan, S. (2010). Analysis of procrastination among university students. Procedia Social and Behavior Sciences, 5, 1897-1904.
Jadidi, F., Mohammadkhan, S., & Tajrishi, K.Z. (2011). Perfectionism and academic procrastination. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 534-537.
Jago. R., Davison, K.K., Brockman, R., Page, A.S., Thompson, J.L., & Fox, K.R. (2011). Parenting styles, parenting practices, and physical activity in 10- to 11-year olds. Preventive Medicine, 52, 44-47.
Javady, M.J., & Mahmoudi, M. (2015). The relationship between perceived parenting styles and academic procrastination and fear of success. International Academic Journal of Humanities, 2(10), 31-49.
Kagan, M., Cakir, O., Ilhan, T., & Kandemi, M. (2010). The explanation of the academic procrastination behaviour of university students with perfectionism, obsessive-compulsive and five factor personality traits. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 2121-2125.
Kandemir, M. (2014). Reasons of academic procrastination: self- regulation, academic self-efficacy, life satisfaction and demographics variables. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 152, 188 – 193.
Khan, M.J. (2014). Academic Procrastination among Male and Female University and College Students. FWU Journal of Social Sciences, 8(2), 65-70.
Klassen, R.M., Krawchuk, L.L., & Rajani, S. (2008). Academic procrastination of undergraduates: Low self-efficacy to self-regulate predicts higher levels of procrastination. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33, 915–931.
Lee, M.Y. (2013). Academic Procrastination and Its Relationship with Parenting Styles and Self-Esteem among Undergraduate Students (Master’s Thesis). Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia.
Loa, R.I. (2012). Academic Procrastination and Parenting Styles in Psychology Students. Indonesian Psychological Journal, 27(4), 223-231.
Mahasneh, A.M., Bataineh, O.T., & Al-Zoubi, Z.H. (2016). The Relationship Between Academic Procrastination and Parenting Styles Among Jordanian Undergraduate University Students. The Open Psychology Journal, 9, 25-34.
Mandap, C.M. (2016). Examining the Differences in Procrastination Tendencies among University Students. International Journal of Education and Research, 4(4), 431-436.
Moonaghi, H.K., & Beydokhti, T.B. (2017). Academic Procrastination and Its Characteristics: A Narrative Review. Future of Medical Education Journal, 43-50.
Onwuegbuzie, A.J. (2004). Academic procrastination and statistics anxiety. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 29(1).
Park, S.W. (2008). Self-Regulation of Academic Procrastinators: A Mixed Methods Study (Master’s Thesis). The Pennsylvania State University, USA.
Pychyl, T.A., Coplan, R.J., & Reid, P.A.M. (2002). Parenting and procrastination: gender differences in the relations between procrastination, parenting style and self-worth in early adolescence. Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 271-285.
Rabin, L.A., Fogel, J., & Nutter-Upham, K.E. (2011). Academic procrastination in college students: The role of self-reported executive function. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 33(3), 344-357.
Ribeiro, L.L. (2009). Construction Validation of a Four Parenting Styles Scale. (Master’s Thesis). Humboldt State University.
Sepehrian, F., & Lotf, J.J. (2011). The Effects of Coping Styles and Gender on Academic Procrastination among University Students. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 1(12), 2987-2993.
Sirin, E.F. (2011). Academic procrastination among undergraduates attending school of physical education and sports: Role of general procrastination, academic motivation and academic self-efficacy. Educational Research and Reviews, 6(5), 447-455.
Solomon, L.J. & Rothblum, E.D. (1984). Academic Procrastination: Frequency and Cognitive-Behavioral Correlates. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31(4), 503-509.
Solomon, L. J., & Rothblum, E. D. (1994). Procrastination Assessment Scale-Students (PASS). In J. Fischer, & K. Corcoran (Eds.), Measures for clinical practice (pp. 446-452). New York, NY: The Free Press.
Spera, C. (2005). A Review of the Relationship Among Parenting Practices, Parenting Styles, and Adolescent School Achievement. Educational Psychology Review, 17(2), 125-146.
Steel, P. (2007). The Nature of Procrastination: A Meta-Analytic and Theoretical Review of Quintessential Self-Regulatory Failure. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 65-94.
Zakeri, H., Esfahani, B.N., & Razmjoee, M. (2013). Parenting Styles and Academic Procrastination. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84, 57-60.