Perspectives of Practitioners on the Green Infrastructure in Mukalla City, Yemen
Green infrastructure (GI) is a new term that aims to accomplish sustainable development. It is a platform to achieve a balance between environmental preservation and urban development and achieve economic, social and environmental benefits. However, many countries are suffering from a lack of investment in GI benefits, especially developing countries. Therefore, this study aims to assess the level of attitude among practitioners through assessing their willingness to invest in GI benefits. A quantitative research approach and the questionnaire were designed, containing 17 main benefits of GI to achieve the aim of this study. The questionnaires were distributed manually to the agencies of planning and designing of urban area in Mukalla city. The total number of completed questionnaires entered into this study was 82—the SPSS program approved for results analysis. Relative important index (RII) was used to rank the items, means (X̄) was used to assess the level of attitude among practitioners. Pearson's Chi-square test (χ2) was used to explore the impact of the demographic factors of practitioners on their attitude. In contrast, multiple linear regression was used to predict the relation between attitude and demographic factors. Firstly, the overall means (X̄) revealed that the GI attitude among practitioners in Mukalla city was positive. Secondly, the cross-tabulation revealed that all-male, old and non-government practitioners having a positive attitude, similarly all highly experienced and postgraduate practitioners also had a positive attitude. Pearson's Chi-square test (χ2) showed that experience has no significant influence on GI's economic, social and environmental benefits. Thirdly, multiple linear regression showed that gender and education of practitioners contribute positively toward increasing the level of attitude among practitioners in Mukalla city.
Al Khulaidi, A. W. A. (2006). Environmental and human determinates of vegetation distribution in the Hadhramaut region, Republic of Yemen.
Alabi, M. O., & Christian, E. I. (2013). Street Tree Canopy Cover Variation Effects on Temperature in Lokoja, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 2(2), 25–31.
Al-Maashi, T. A. (1998). Vernacular domestic architecture of Mukallah, Yemen. Texas Tech University.
Asadian, Y., & Weiler, M. (2009). A new approach in measuring rainfall interception by urban trees in coastal British Columbia. Water Quality Research Journal, 44(1), 16–25.
Benedict, M. A., & McMahon, E. T. (2002). Green infrastructure: smart conservation for the 21st century. Renewable Resources Journal, 20(3), 12–17.
Beyer, K. M. M., Kaltenbach, A., Szabo, A., Bogar, S., Nieto, F. J., & Malecki, K. M. (2014). Exposure to neighborhood green space and mental health: evidence from the survey of the health of Wisconsin. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(3), 3453–3472.
Chakre, O. J. (2006). Choice of eco-friendly trees in urban environment to mitigate airborne particulate pollution. Journal of Human Ecology, 20(2), 135–138.
Chibrik, T. S., Lukina, N. V, Filimonova, E. I., Glazyrina, M. A., Rakov, E. A., Maleva, M. G., & Prasad, M. N. V. (2016). Biological recultivation of mine industry deserts: Facilitating the formation of phytocoenosis in the middle Ural region, Russia. In Bioremediation and Bioeconomy (pp. 389–418). Elsevier.
Cirillo, C., & Podolsky, L. (2012). Health, Prosperity and Sustainability: The Case for Green Infrastructure in Ontario. Green Infrastructure Ontario Coalition.
Demuzere, M., Orru, K., Heidrich, O., Olazabal, E., Geneletti, D., Orru, H., Bhave, A. G., Mittal, N., Feliu, E., & Faehnle, M. (2014). Mitigating and adapting to climate change: Multi-functional and multi-scale assessment of green urban infrastructure. Journal of Environmental Management, 146, 107–115.
Deng, J., Arano, K. G., Pierskalla, C., & McNeel, J. (2010). Linking urban forests and urban tourism: a case of Savannah, Georgia. Tourism Analysis, 15(2), 167–181.
Dietz, M. E. (2007). Low impact development practices: A review of current research and recommendations for future directions. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 186(1–4), 351–363.
Du Toit, M. J., Cilliers, S. S., Dallimer, M., Goddard, M., Guenat, S., & Cornelius, S. F. (2018). Urban green infrastructure and ecosystem services in sub-Saharan Africa. Landscape and Urban Planning, 180, 249–261.
Foster, J., Lowe, A., & Winkelman, S. (2011). The value of green infrastructure for urban climate adaptation. Center for Clean Air Policy, 750(1), 1–52.
Gallet, D. (2011). The Value of green infrastructure: a guide to recognizing its economic, environmental and social benefits. Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation, 2011(17), 924–928.
Girma, Y., Terefe, H., Pauleit, S., & Kindu, M. (2019). Urban green infrastructure planning in Ethiopia: The case of emerging towns of Oromia special zone surrounding Finfinne. Journal of Urban Management, 8(1), 75–88.
Gonzalez-Meler, M. A., Cotner, L., Massey, D. A., Zellner, M. L., & Minor, E. S. (2016). The environmental and ecological benefits of green infrastructure for stormwater runoff in urban areas.
Hansmann, R., Hug, S.-M., & Seeland, K. (2007). Restoration and stress relief through physical activities in forests and parks. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 6(4), 213–225.
Hartig, T., van den Berg, A. E., Hagerhall, C. M., Tomalak, M., Bauer, N., Hansmann, R., Ojala, A., Syngollitou, E., Carrus, G., & van Herzele, A. (2011). Health benefits of nature experience: Psychological, social and cultural processes. In Forests, trees and human health (pp. 127–168). Springer.
Jeanjean, A. P. R., Gallagher, J., Monks, P. S., & Leigh, R. J. (2017). Ranking current and prospective NO2 pollution mitigation strategies: An environmental and economic modelling investigation in Oxford Street, London. Environmental Pollution, 225, 587–597.
Kemperman, A., & Timmermans, H. (2014). Green spaces in the direct living environment and social contacts of the aging population. Landscape and Urban Planning, 129, 44–54.
Kim, D., & Song, S.-K. (2019). The Multifunctional Benefits of Green Infrastructure in Community Development: An Analytical Review Based on 447 Cases. Sustainability, 11(14), 3917.
Kumar, P. (2010). The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity: ecological and economic foundations. UNEP/Earthprint.
Leavitt, M. O. (2007). Department of Health and Human Services. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 1(1), 7. https://doi.org/10.1097/DMP.0b013e3180cac8c7
Li, B., Chen, D., Wu, S., Zhou, S., Wang, T., & Chen, H. (2016). Spatio-temporal assessment of urbanisation impacts on ecosystem services: Case study of Nanjing City, China. Ecological Indicators, 71, 416–427.
Li, X., Ratti, C., & Seiferling, I. (2018). Quantifying the shade provision of street trees in urban landscape: A case study in Boston, USA, using Google Street View. Landscape and Urban Planning, 169, 81–91.
Liu, W., Chen, W., & Peng, C. (2014). Assessing the effectiveness of green infrastructures on urban flooding reduction: A community scale study. Ecological Modelling, 291, 6–14.
Lovell, S. T., & Taylor, J. R. (2013). Supplying urban ecosystem services through multifunctional green infrastructure in the United States. Landscape Ecology, 28(8), 1447–1463.
Luan, B., Yin, R., Xu, P., Wang, X., Yang, X., Zhang, L., & Tang, X. (2019). Evaluating Green Stormwater Infrastructure strategies efficiencies in a rapidly urbanizing catchment using SWMM-based TOPSIS. Journal of Cleaner Production, 223, 680–691.
Luttik, J. (2000). The value of trees, water and open space as reflected by house prices in the Netherlands. Landscape and Urban Planning, 48(3–4), 161–167.
Maas, J., Verheij, R. A., Groenewegen, P. P., De Vries, S., & Spreeuwenberg, P. (2006). Green space, urbanity, and health: how strong is the relation? Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 60(7), 587–592.
MacKinnon, K., Sobrevila, C., & Hickey, V. (2008). Biodiversity, climate change, and adaptation: nature-based solutions from the World Bank portfolio. The World Bank.
Majumdar, S., Deng, J., Zhang, Y., & Pierskalla, C. (2011). Using contingent valuation to estimate the willingness of tourists to pay for urban forests: A study in Savannah, Georgia. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 10(4), 275–280.
Mukalla : Gateway to the Hadramout. (n.d.). Assessment.
Peters, K., Elands, B., & Buijs, A. (2010). Social interactions in urban parks: stimulating social cohesion? Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 9(2), 93–100.
Poe, M. R., McLain, R. J., Emery, M., & Hurley, P. T. (2013). Urban forest justice and the rights to wild foods, medicines, and materials in the city. Human Ecology, 41(3), 409–422.
Rahman, S. R. A., Ahmad, H., & Rosley, M. S. F. (2013). Green roof: Its awareness among professionals and potential in Malaysian market. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 85, 443–453.
Randolph, J. (2004). Environmental land use planning and management. Island Press.
Roe, J. J., Thompson, C. W., Aspinall, P. A., Brewer, M. J., Duff, E. I., Miller, D., Mitchell, R., & Clow, A. (2013). Green space and stress: evidence from cortisol measures in deprived urban communities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 10(9), 4086–4103.
Roe, M., & Mell, I. (2013). Negotiating value and priorities: evaluating the demands of green infrastructure development. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 56(5), 650–673.
SG. (2012). Making the most of communities’ natural assets: green infrastructure. Scotland: Scottish Government Edinburgh.
Thompson, C. W., Roe, J., Aspinall, P., Mitchell, R., Clow, A., & Miller, D. (2012). More green space is linked to less stress in deprived communities: Evidence from salivary cortisol patterns. Landscape and Urban Planning, 105(3), 221–229.
Tzoulas, K., Korpela, K., Venn, S., Yli-Pelkonen, V., Kaźmierczak, A., Niemela, J., & James, P. (2007). Promoting ecosystem and human health in urban areas using Green Infrastructure: A literature review. Landscape and Urban Planning, 81(3), 167–178.
United Nations. (2011). World Ubanization Prospects: the 2011 Revision. New York: Depaetment of Economic and Social Affairs.
Vasilevska, M., & Vasilevska, L. (2019). Benefits of synergy of urban green infrastructure and integrated stormwater management approaches: theoretical perspective and examples from Vienna. Facta Universitatis, Series: Architecture and Civil Engineering, 17(2), 145–157.
Vitousek, P. M., Mooney, H. A., Lubchenco, J., & Melillo, J. M. (1997). Human domination of Earth’s ecosystems. Science, 277(5325), 494–499.
Wolf, K. L., & Robbins, A. S. T. (2015). Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value. Environmental Health Perspectives, 123(5), 390–398.
Xiao, X. D., Dong, L., Yan, H., Yang, N., & Xiong, Y. (2018). The influence of the spatial characteristics of urban green space on the urban heat island effect in Suzhou Industrial Park. Sustainable Cities and Society, 40, 428–439.
Youngquist, T. D. (2009). What is green infrastructure? An evaluation of green infrastructure plans from across the United States.
Zimmerman, M. J., Waldron, M. C., Barbaro, J. R., & Sorenson, J. R. (2010). Effects of low-impact-development (LID) practices on streamflow, runoff quantity, and runoff quality in the Ipswich River Basin, Massachusetts: A summary of field and modeling studies. US Geological Survey Circular, 1361, 40.