Women Volunteerism for Protecting Watershed Ecosystem in Langat Basin
Forested watershed provides abundant ecosystem services for water users including catchment area protection, flood regulation, provisioning of clean drinking water and climate regulation. However, the value of ecosystem services only partially takes into account by policy makers and indirectly cause overexploitation of natural resources. This study observes the economic role of women in protecting watershed ecosystem by calculating willingness to pay (WTP). Langat Basin is an imperative watershed that supplying fresh water source and other necessities to approximately 1.2 million people within the catchment area. Langat Basin has getting the effect of hasty growth through industrialization and land development actions. Women within Langat Basin has been selected through face to face interview for measure willingness to pay (WTP) towards ecosystem protection. Single Bounded Dichotomous Choice technique in Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) is engaged to calculate WTP of women. Willingness to pay of women in upstream is RM184.28, followed by women in middle stream is RM168.60 and lastly WTP of women in downstream is RM190.16. The willingness to pay women shows that women has potential to be part of ecosystem protection and signal to policy makers to include women in decision making process especially for environmental perspective.
Arabomena, O. J., Chirwaa, P. W., & Babalolaa, F. D. 2019. Willingness-to-pay for Environmental Services Provided By Trees in Core and Fringe Areas of Benin City, Nigeria 1. International Forestry Review, 21(1), 23-36.
Arrow, K., R. Solow, P.R. Portney, E.E. Leamer, R. Radner, and H. Schuman. 1993. Report of the NOAA panel on contingent valuation. Federal Register 58(10):4601-4614.
Benson, M. C. 2006. An economic valuation of improved water quality in Opequon watershed(Doctoraldissertation,WestVirginiaUniversity).
Carlsson, F.; Garcia, J.H.; Lofgren, A. Conformity and the Demand for Environmental Goods. Environ. Resour. Econ. 2010, 47, 407–421.
Devika Krishnan. 2017. Kesanggupan membayar isirumah bagi fungsi perlindungan Kawasan hutan tadahan air dengan menggunakan instrumen Bayaran perkhidmatan ekosistem (PES): Kajian kes di Lembangan Langat, Selangor dan pengalaman Perbadanan Tenaga Hidro Boleh Diperbaharui Perak (PHREC). Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
Dietz, T.; Stern, P.; Guagnano, G. Social Structural and Social Psychological Bases of Environmental Concern. Environ. Behav. 1998, 30, 450–471.
Dupont, D.P. Do Children Matter? An Examination of Gender Differences in Environmental Valuation. Ecol. Econ. 2004, 49, 273–286.
Green Belt Movement. 2019. Wangari Maathai. Available at : https://www.greenbeltmovement.org/wangari-maathai [Accessed on 15 May 2019]
Goel, P. K. (2006). Water pollution: causes, effects and control. New Age International.
Hanemann M, Loomis J and Kanninen B. 1991. Statistical Efficiency of Double-bounded Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation. Am. J. Agric. Econ. 73: 12551263.
Juahir, H. 2008. Water Quality Data Analysis and Modeling at Langat River Basin. PhD dissertation, Universiti Putra Malaysia.
Kadhum, S. A., Ishak, M. Y., Zulkifli, S. Z., & binti Hashim, R. 2015. Evaluation of the status and distributions of heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Langat River Basin in Selangor Malaysia. Marine pollution bulletin, 101(1), 391-396.
Landell-Mills, N., & Porras, I. T. 2002. Silver bullet or fools' gold?: a global review of markets for forest environmental services and their impact on the poor. London: International Institute for Environment and Development.
Lee, C. Y., & Heo, H. 2016. Estimating willingness to pay for renewable energy in South Korea using the contingent valuation method. Energy Policy, 94, 150-156.
Lv, Z., & Deng, C. 2019. Does women's political empowerment matter for improving the environment? A heterogeneous dynamic panel analysis. Sustainable Development.
Schuhmann, P. W., Skeete, R., Waite, R., Lorde, T., Bangwayo-Skeete, P., Oxenford, H. A., ... & Spencer, F. 2019. Visitors’ willingness to pay marine conservation fees in Barbados. Tourism Management, 71, 315-326.
Sun, C., Yuan, X., & Yao, X. 2016. Social acceptance towards the air pollution in China: evidence from public's willingness to pay for smog mitigation. Energy Policy, 92, 313-324.
Maathai, W. (2013). Unbowed. Field Actions Science Reports. The journal of field actions, (Special Issue 7).
Wuyep, S. Z., Dung, V. C., Buhari, A. H., Madaki, D. H., & Bitrus, B. A. 2014. Women participation in environmental protection and management: Lessons from plateau state, Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 2(2), 32-36.