Appraisal of the 2019 Post-Electoral Violence in Nigeria
The article focuses on incidents and causes of post-electoral violence in the 2019 general election in Nigeria. The post-electoral violence recorded during the general election is one of the most violent in the history of democratic dispersion in the country. Ballot box snatching, burning of properties, various degree of injuries and loss of lives were the basic feature of the elections. Relying on the available records from various secondary sources and with the use of content analysis the current found that the main causes of the level of violence could be attributed to ethnicity and sectional in politics, in-depth ignorance, political impunity, lack of internal democracy, negative perception inflammatory campaign. The article recommended amendment of the electoral act as well as re-strategized the security architecture for elections in the country.
Adepegba, A. (2019). Police arrest 105 suspected thugs in Imo. Punch. https://punchng.com/police-arrest-105-suspected-thugs-in-imo/. March 10, 2019. Retrieved 10/03/2019.
Agbalajobi, T. D & Agunbiade, T. A. (2016). Electoral violence and women’s participation in electoral processes: challenges and prospects for future elections in Nigeria. Unilag Sociological Review (USR), Vol. XII, Issue II, Pp 73 -94
Ajayi, O. (2019) INEC ad hoc staff killed, another arrested. Vanguard https://www.vanguardngr.com/2019/02/inec-ad-hoc-staff-killed-another-arrested/ Retrieved 25/02/2019
Albert, I. (2007). ‘Reconceptualising Electoral Violence in Nigeria’. In I Albert, D Marco& V Ochoche. 1997. ‘Electoral Violence and National Security in Nigeria’. Africa Peace Review 1(1)
Alhassan, R. (2019) 5 APC agents ambushed, killed in Taraba. Daily Nigerian https://dailynigerian.com/5-apc-agents-ambushed-killed-in-taraba/ Retrieved 25/02/2019
Angerbrandt, H. (2018). Deadly elections: post-election violence in Nigeria. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 56(1), 143-167.
Aniekwe, C and Kushie, J. (2011). Electoral Violence Situational Analysis: Identifying Hot Spots in the 2011 General Elections in Nigeria. Abuja: NAPEN.
Busari, K. (2019). Properties destroyed as APC, PDP supporters clash in Kaduna. PremiumTime https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/more-news/318170-properties-destroyed-as- apc-pdp-supporters-clash-in-kaduna.html Retrieved 08/03/2019.
Collier, P., & Vicente, P. C. (2008). Votes and violence: Experimental evidence from a field experiment in Nigeria. HiCN Working Paper, 50.
Daily Nigerian (2019) Police confirm 3 dead in Kogi. https://dailynigerian.com/police-confirm-3-dead-in-kogi/ Retrieved 25/02/2019
Ehinmore, O. M. & Ehiabhi, O. S. (2013). Nigeria and the Challenges of Credible Political Leadership Since 1960, Canadian Journal of Social Science, Vol. 7 (4), 2013, p.139.
Fischer, J. (2002). Electoral conflict and violence. IFES White paper, 1.
Meadow, R. G. (2009). Political violence and the media. Marquette Law Review, 93(1), 231–240.
Nwogu, S. (2019). 50 people died during presidential/NASS elections – PDP https://punchng.com/50-people-died-during-presidential-nass-elections-pdp/ Retrieved 02/03/2019.
Nwolise, O. B. (2007). Electoral violence and Nigeria's 2007 elections. Journal of African Elections, 6(2), 155-179.
Odama, D (2019) Thugs invade police barracks, destroy election materials in Nasarawa. Vanguard https://www.vanguardngr.com/2019/02/thugs-invade-police-barracks-destroy-election-materials-in-nasarawa-2/ Retrieved 25/02/2019.
Oladele, B., Anthony, B., Olaniyi, B., Sunday, D., Ojo, D. (2019). Rep, Police sergeant shot dead, 11 others killed The Nation. http://thenationonlineng.net/rep-police-sergeant-shot-dead- 11-others-killed/ March, 10th 2019. Retrieved 10/03/2019.
Omotola, S. (2010). Explaining electoral violence in Africa’s ‘new’democracies. African Journal on Conflict Resolution, 10(3).
Onapajo, H. (2014). Violence and Votes in Nigeria: The Dominance of Incumbents in the use of violence to rig elections. Africa Spectrum, 49(2), 27-51.
Onimisi, T. (2015). The Prognoses of the 2011 Electoral Violence in Nigeria and the Lessons for the Future. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(1 S1), 242.
Onyeji, E. (2019). Kano Election Violence: Group condemns police ‘inaction’, INEC’s ‘double standard.Retrieved 07/06/2019 from https://www.premiumtimesng.com/regional/nwest/322138-kano-election-violence-group-condemns-police-inaction-inecs-double-standard.html
Orji, N., & Uzodi, N. (2012). The 2011 Post-election Violence in Nigeria. Policy and Legal Advocacy Centre: Abuja, Nigeria.
Oyelude, O. (2019). Three INEC staff missing, policeman killed as thugs invade Katsina polling unit. Punch. https://punchng.com/three-inec-staff-missing-policeman-killed-as-thugs-invade-katsina-polling-unit/ March 10, 2019. Retrieved 10/03/2019
Premium Times (2019) Elections: Two killed in Anambra https://www.premiumtimesng.com/regional/ssouth-east/319019-elections-two-killed-in-anambra.html March 9th. Retreievd 10th 2019
Premium Times (2019). Violence, vote buying, other irregularities mar supplementary governorship elections — CDD. Retrieved 07/06/2019 https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/top-news/322010-violence-vote-buying-other- irregularities-mar-supplementary-governorship-elections-cdd.html
Przeworski, A., Rivero, G., & Xi, T. (2015). Elections as a conflict processing mechanism. European Journal of Political Economy, 39, 235-248.
Sha'ban, I (2019) Sen. Adokwe survives attack by hoodlums in Lafia Daily Nigerian. Daily Nigerian https://dailynigerian.com/sen-adokwe-survives-attack-by-hoodlums-in- lafia/Retrieved 25/02/2019
Shuaibu, I. (2019). Kano Governorship Election Result Buries Uncertainty. Retrieved 07/06/2019 from https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2019/03/27/kano-governorship-election-result-buries-uncertainty/
Sisk, T. D., & Reynolds, A. (1998). Elections and conflict management in Africa. US Institute of Peace Press.
Sowole, J. (2019). Two Feared Killed, Vehicles, Beer Depot Vandalized as Thugs Attack Collation Centre in Ondo. ThisDayLive. https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2019/03/09/two-feared-killed- vehicles-beer-depot-vandalised-as-thugs-attack-collation-centre-in-ondo/ Retrieved 10th 2019.
Straus, S., & Taylor, C. (2009). Democratization and electoral violence in sub-saharan africa, 1990-2007. In APSA 2009 Toronto Meeting Paper.
Straus, S. & Taylor, C. (2012). ‘Democratization and electoral violence in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1999–2007’, in D. Bekoe, ed, Voting in Fear: electoral violence in sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, pp15–38.
Thisday (2019) INEC Office Gutted by Fire in Imo. https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2019/03/11/inec-office-gutted-by-fire-in-imo/ 11/03/2019. Retrieved 11/03/2019
Verjee, A., Kwaja, C., & Onubogu, O. (2018). Nigeria’s 2019 Elections: Change, Continuity, and the Risks to Peace. United States Institute of Peace (USIP) Special Report.
Yahay, F. (2019) 128 Arrested for Electoral Offences The Nation http://thenationonlineng.net/128-arrested-for-electoral-offences/\ Retrieved 25/02/2019