Patriarchal Oppression and Gender Discrimination in Selected Novels of Alice Walker
The current study sheds the light on the presence of African American women through selected novels of a contemporary feminist writer Alice Walker, The Color Purple, Meridian and The Third Life of Grange Copeland. The main aim behind this study is to create a new identity and give a voice for black women in American society in the recent era and make them self-confidence socially, emotionally and spiritually. Racial discrimination, patriarchal oppression, gender violence, the Civil Right Movement and slavery, these subjects shape the core of Walker's works. Walker was the first female who coined 'Womanism' a term of black feminism which affricates women's culture, women's strength, and women's flexibility. The writer tells her themes through her heroines in order to offer the reader a real depiction and insightful and sent a message for all the world by the ill-treatment, marginalization, and multi-faced exploitation that most of Afro- American women have been suffering for centuries. Further to reveal the gradual development and social changes in the life of her protagonists from self-abnegation, silence and powerless to self-acceptance, resistance, and empowerment.
Amrutha, K. (2017). Black Consciousness in Alice Walker’s Novels with Reference To the Color Purple. Meridian. Research Journal of English Language and.Literature (AJELAL),5(3).
Barrios, O. (2016). The construction of identity and political consciousness of Black Women in Walker’s Meridian. Campus de Excelencia, International
Brown, D.A. (2004). Fighting racism in the 21st century. Washington and Lee law review, 61, 1485-1499.
Farda, R. F.& Zarrinjooee. (2014). From Feminism to Womanism : The Image of Black Woman in “ The Color Purple ” by Alice Walker.
Gilbert,S.M.,& Gubar ,S. (2000).The mad woman in the attic(2nd).New Heaven , CT :Yale Univercity Press.
Gorsky, S. R. (1992). Femininity to Feminism Women and Literature in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Twayane publishers.
Jaggar, A.M. (1983). Feminist politics and human nature. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Allanheld.
Koynucu, F. (2014). The Color Purple By Alice Walker in Term of feminist criticism. Journal of History School (JOHS). Tarih Okulu Dergisi (TOD), 429 - 439.
Kutlu, A., & Walker, A. (2003). Violence Against Women: a Comparative Analysis of The Color Purple By Alice Walker and Zehir Zikkim Hikayeler (Venemous stories) By Ayla Kutlu, International Conference on Education Culture andIdentity. University of Sarajevo 6.8.
Lauret,M.(2012).Liberating Literature: Feminist Fiction in America. Retrieved Article London: Routledge and New York.
Mclaughlin, E. ,& Davis, A.Y. (ed)( 2003). Criminological Perspectives: Essential Readings, Serge publications: New Delhi.p.286.
Mhandu, E. (2012).Transcending the Inauspicious Curse ? Black Violence and the Victim-focused Identity in Alice Walker's Works. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 2 (10), 5–13.
Mirshojaei, M. (2016). Concepts of Identity in Alice Walker' s Major Novels in the Light of Post-Colonialism. International Academic Journal of Psychologyand Educational Studies, (3), 67–80.
Morrison, T. (2000). Unspeakable Things Unspoken: The Afro-American Presence in American Literature (l990). A Turbulent Voyage: Readings in African American Studies, 246.
Morrison, T. (1994). Playing in the dark: Whiteness and the literary imagination. Modern Philology, 92(2), 267-271.
Nadu, T. (2017). Predicaments of blacks in the novel Meridian by Alice Walker, International Journal of English Research, 3(2), 55–56.
Padhi, P. K .(2015). A study of Celie’s Emancipation in Alice Walkers The Color Purple. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 4(2 ), 1-5.
Seaman, D,(2009). By the Light of My Father’s Smile, by Alice Walker. Booklist 1 June-.15 June 1998: 1671.
Shahida, M. (2013). A study of Alice Walker. The color purple. Department of English, Prakash Book Depot, Jabalpur.
Shalini, F. (2014). Alice Walke’s struggle of Black Women For Gender Equality. Research Scholar, Journal of Department of English, 2(2),31-38.
Sharma, D. , & Dwivedi , J.(2017). Insights of Feminist Epistemology in Some SelectedNovels of Alice Walker. Rupkatha Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies Humanities. India.
Srisermbhok, A. (2016). An open Learning Through Feminist Writing for Self-Discovery and Intellectual Development. Language Education and Acquisition Research Network (LEARN) Journal Southeast Bangkok College, 9(1).
Sussman,K.J. (2010). Politics, Aesthetics and Diverse.Sexualities in the work of, James Baldwin, Alice Walker, and Toni Morrison,(Doctoral dissertation) in English Literature, University of Edinburgh.
Tyson, L.(2015). Critical theory today: A user-friendly guide. Routledge. toward Europe Europe. The Daily Telegraph. (3rd ed) London.
Vaidyanathan, G. (2012). Alice Walker, The Color Purple,Critical Study(.firsted)Rama Brothers,ISBN978-81-7581-316-8.India PVT. LTD.
Walker, A .(2010).In Search of Our Mother's Gardens: Womanist Prose. New York: Harvest Book, 1983.
Walker, A.(1982).The Color Purple. USA: Washington Square Press.
Walker, A.(2004).The Color Purple.London: Phoenix, 2004.
Walker, A.( 1981). You Can’t Keep a Good Woman Down. New York: Harcourt Brace.
Walker, A.(1970). The Third Life of Grange Copeland. New York. Pocket Books, 1970.