A Study of the Usage of Biofeedback Techniques to Improve Self Performance and HRV Profile Among Ikhtiar Malaysia Entrepreneurs

  • Nazrolnizah Mohamad Noorzeli Centre for Modern Language & Human Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP)
  • Muhammad Nubli Abdul Wahab Centre for Modern Language & Human Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP)
Keywords: self performance, women entrepreneurs, biofeedback, heart rate variability


Self performance is important among entrepreneurs due to increasing the business enhancement. Nevertheless, previous literature showed that there are less current study which focused on the self performance using Biofeedback techniques among entrepreneurs in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed; 1) to look at how Emwave Biofeedback techniques can be used to improve self performance among Ikhtiar Malaysia women entrepreneurs and 2) to improve the HRV score among participants through increased the HF coherence. A total of 10 respondents were recruited in this study. The changing nature of Heart Rate variability (HRV) of HF, LF and VLF frequencies was measured through Biofeedback Emwave training techniques. The HRV Biofeedback techniques were used to determine the emotional state and the balance ability between individual Sympathetic and Parasympathetic systems. This balance is important to enable women entrepreneurs to control internal and external stimuli to be adapted to their business environment. The study showed that the technique is able to improve the characteristics of HRV to increase self performance among women entrepreneurs. The study found that respondents who successfully completed the HRV training able to increase their self performance in term of HRV score and businesses. Result showed that there was a positive correlation (0.80-1.00) between all the business and HRV. This showed that Emwave Biofeedback training is appropriate to be used as an intervention program to improve self performance and business enhancement among the participants. Thus, this study concludes that HRV Biofeedback techniques can be an important measure in gauging business entrepreneur’s health and performance.

Abstract views: 169 , PDF downloads: 180


Download data is not yet available.


Abdullah, S. (2010). Nilai Inovasi, kreativiti perlu dalam keusahawanan. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysia.

Abdul Rahman Embong. (2007). Pembangunan Negara, Komuniti dan Insan Melampaui 2020. Bangi: Institut Kajian Malaysia dan Antarabangsa.

Adam, B. (2008). Understanding the Ethical Cost of Organizational Goal-Setting: AReview and Theory Development. Journal of Business Ethic. 2008, 63-81.

Adnan, A. & Mohamad Dahlan, I. (2002). Keusahawanan di Malaysia: Keusahawanan Islam. Kuala Lumpur: Prentice hall Pearson Malaysia.

Ahmad Badawi, A. (2006). Ucapan Bajet 2007. Pembentangan Bajet 2007. Dewan Rakyat, Kuala Lumpur.

Andreassi, J.L. (2007). Psychophysiology Human Behaviour and Physiological Response. (5th ed.) New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Anne, S. (2008). Universities: An entrepreneur’s Ecosystem. USM.

Aouni, Z. & Surlemont, B. (2008). Entrepreneurial Competensies within the Process of Opportunity Recognition (Interactive paper). Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 28(17).

Arif, A.H.M., Bidin, Z., Sharif, Z. & Ahmad, A. (2010). Predicting Entrepreneurship Intention among Malay University Accounting Students in Malaysia. UNITAR e-journal. 6 (1).

Auditya P.S. (2011). The Effect of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback Training for Improving Cognitive Performance among Female Manufacturing Operators. Ph.D. Thesis. Universiti Malaysia Pahang.

Bagozzi, Richard, P., & Utpal, D. (1999). Goal Setting and Goal Striving in Consumer Behavior. Journal of Marketing. 63,19-32.

Berntson, G.G., Bigger, J.T., Eckberg, D.L., Grossman, P., Kaufmann, P.G., Malik, M., Nagaraja, H.N., Porges, S.W., Saul, J.P., Stone, P.H., & Van Der Molen, M.W.        (1997). Heart Rate Variability: Origins, methods, and Interpretive Cavats. Psychophysiology. 34: 623-648.

Bradley, D., Yani, L.D., Philip, D., & Vecchio, D. (2011). Cognitive Asessment in Behavioral Sport Psychology. Behavioral Sport Psychology. pp 79-95.

Burch, J. G. (1986). Entrepreneurships. The University of Michigan. New York: John Wiley & Sons Publication.

Diane, L.G., & Cindra, S. K. (2010). Gender in Sport and Exercise Psychology.Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology. Springer New York. 563-585.

David, M. & Konno, J. (2009). The Religious Time Bind: US Work Hours and     Religion. Social Indicators Research. (93), 209-214.

Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Fourth Edition. (2009). Kuala Lumpur. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Gevirtz, R., & Lehrer, P.M. (2003). Resonant Frequency Heart Rate Biofeedback. In Biofeedback: A Practioner’s Guide (3rd ed.) pp. 245-250. M. S. Scwartz and F. Andrasik (Eds.). New York. The Guilford Press.

Greene, P. (2012). Entrepreneurial Ecosystem: growing entrepreneurial communities creating wealth and social justice. Forum edisi 2012. Kolej Babson. USA.

Garet, M., Toumaire, N., Roche, F., Laurent, R., Lacour, J.R., Barthelemy, J.C. & Pichot, V. (2004). Individual interdependence between noctural ANS activity and performance in swimmers. Medical Sciences Sport Exercise. 36(12), 2112-8.

Griffiths, T., Steel, D., Vaccaro, P., & Karpman, M. (1981). The Effect of Relaxation Techniques on Anxiety and Underwater Performance. International Journal of Sport Psychology, (12), 176-182.

Hedley, C.N. (2006). What Does It Mean To Love Your Job: Investigating The Construct. Paper Presented at the Meeting of the Academy of Management, Atlanta, August, 2006.

Ikhtiar Malaysia. (2013). Pembangunan Usahawan Ikhtiar: Inisiatif Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Bahagian Pembangunan Usahawan. Risalah Terbitan Tahunan 2013.

Lehrer, P.M., Vaschillo, E.G., & Vaschillo, B. (2000). Resonant Frequency Biofeedback Training to Increase Cardiac Variability: Rationale and Manual for Training. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. 25 (3), 177-191.

Lehrer, P.M., & Kranitz, L. (2003). Biofeedback Applications in the Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases. Cardiology in Review, 12(3), 177-181.

Lehrer, P.M. (2007). Biofeedback Training in Increase Heart Rate Variability. In Principles and Practice of Stress Management. (3rd ed.). New York; The Guilford Press.

Maryn, Y., De-Bodt M., & Van Cauwenberge. P. (2006). Effects of Biofeedback in Phonator Disorders and Phonatory Performance: A Systematic Literature Review. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, (31), 65-83.

Masahito, S., Junichiro, H., Leo, O.O., Maria, K. & Paul, L. (2013). Heart Rate variability Biofeedback Improve cardiorespiratory resting Function during Sleep. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 38 (4), 265-271. 

Moss, D., & Shaffer, F. (2009). Respiratory Training and Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback for Anxiety Disorders and Functional Medical Disorders: Respiratory Psychophysiology. Workshop Notes. The 13th Annual Meeting of Biofeedback Foundation of Europe, Eindhoven, Netherlands: 2009, February 24.

Nor Aishah Buang. (2002). Asas Keusahawanan. Shah Alam: Penerbit Fajar Bakti Sdn. Bhd.

Richard, G.S. (2009). Are People Getting Smarter?.Human Intelligent and Medical Illness, the Springer Series on Human Exceptionality, 1-8.

Shukor Omar (2003). The Malay Lost World with Emphasize on Entrepreneurship. Kuala Lumpur: Anzagine Sdn. Bhd.

Sutarto, A.P., & Abdul Wahab, M.N. (2008). The effect of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback for Improving Operators’ Cognitive Performance (CD ROM). Proceedings of Fifth International Cyberspace Conference on Ergonomics.

Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North America Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. (1996). Heart Rate Variability: Standard of Measurement,          Psychological Interpretation and Clinical Use. European Heart Journal, 17(3), 354-381.

Tharion, E., Parthasarathy, S. & Neelakantan, N. (2009). Short term Heart rate Variability measures in Students during Examinations. The national medical Journal of India, 22(2), 63-66.

Vaschillo, E., Vaschillo, B., & Lehrer, P.M. (2006). Characteristics of Resonance in Heart Rate Variability Stimulated by Biofeedback. Applied Psychophysiology Biofeedback,31(2), 129-142.

Vitasari, P., & Abdul Wahab. (2011b). The Effect of Biofeedback Intervention Programme on Anxiety among Engineering Students at Universiti Malaysia Pahang. Ph.D. Thesis at Faculty of Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang.

Wang Jing. (2013). An Investigation on Devoutness Islamic Prayer among Female College Students through Biofeedback. Master Thesis. Universiti Malaysia Pahang.

Zaichkowsky & Fuchs, L.C. (1988). Biofeedback Applications in Exercise Atheletic Performance. Exercise and Sport Science Review, (16), 381-421.
How to Cite
Mohamad Noorzeli, N. and Abdul Wahab, M. N. (2016) “A Study of the Usage of Biofeedback Techniques to Improve Self Performance and HRV Profile Among Ikhtiar Malaysia Entrepreneurs”, Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 1(3), pp. 1 - 13. doi: https://doi.org/10.47405/mjssh.v1i3.14.